Royce Shook

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Logical Fallacies

Common Logical Fallacies Everyone Should Know from

Ad Hominem

This occurs when someone attacks directly the person making an argument rather than criticizing the argument itself.

Straw Man

When someone attacks a distorted version of the original argument that they themselves created (i.e., "the straw man").

Appeal to Authority

Asserting that something must be true because it is backed up by someone who is (allegedly) an authority on the subject.

Slippery Slope

Taking an argument from the first, sensible premise to an undesirable or extreme conclusion via a number of hastily connected steps.


The bandwagon fallacy occurs when something is said to be true or good simply because it is popular.

Appeal to Ignorance

When it is said that an argument must be true if it cannot be proven false, or false if it cannot be proven true.

False Dilemma

This occurs when two choices are presented as the only possible options when, in fact, other alternatives exist.

Hasty Generalization

This logical fallacy happens when a general conclusion is drawn based on a sample size that is too small.

Red Herring

This occurs when someone deliberately attempts to move the issue under discussion to a new, irrelevant topic.

Appeal to Tradition

When one claims that something must be good or true because it has been practiced for a long time (that is, traditionally).


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